Photographers in North Carolina (pre-1865)
   With the advent of daguerreotypes in America in Fall 1839, photography and the the business of photography commenced in this country. Early photographers often described themselves as artists, and rarely was it a full-time occupation. 

   These photographers were also teachers, lawyers, doctors, merchants and other professions. But as the 1840s progressed, some intrepid persons launched daguerreotype galleries (i.e, today's photographic studios), generally for short periods. In addition, there were itinerant photographers who would travel with a van full of equipment, visiting city to city.
   This section seeks to identify these early photographers in North Carolina, whether permanent or merely itinerant in their business.
   Some of the earliest photographers in the state were
T. H. Smiley in Raleigh and a Dr. Davis in Halifax (both in late 1842), as well as Isaac B. Alexander in Charlotte,  R. Dugan in Fayetteville, James Joyner in Hillsborough and Henry B. Stringfellow, Jr. in both Raleigh and Fayetteville (all during 1843).
   And one of the longest term practitioners was 
David Lowry Clark of High Point, who conducted a photography business from 1858 to at least 1902.

Alexander, A. W.
1856 - Concord, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Alexander, Isaac B.
June 1843 - (pre-April 1845) - Charlotte (daguerreotype room at Robertson Hotel).
Mainly worked in South Carolina towns, except for period in Charlotte.

Andrews, Joshua P.
1857 - 1860 - Raleigh, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in partnership from 1857 to 1859 with T. J. Haven -- Haven and Andrews; in 1859 he apparently worked for Esly Hunt, who bought out Haven.

Aycocke, John C.
1854 - Louisburg, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Baird, J.N.
1851 - Elizabeth City, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

1852 - Salisbury, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in partnership as Gordon and Baker.

Baremore, D. (David?)
1852 - Hillsborough, NC; (Daguerreotypes)
1853 - Washington, NC 

Barry, E. T.
1856 - Kinston, NC; (Daguerreotypes)
1857 - Chapel Hill, NC
1858-61 - Wilmington, NC; (Ambrotype Gallery at Mozart Hall (formerly Whitehurst's Gallery, given as 17 1/2 Front in 1860-61); 

Battley, William
1857-60 - Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Baugus, John
1856 - Concord,NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Birmingham, A.
1859 - Carthage, NC; (Photographer)

Blackburn, L.D.
1860 - Wilmington, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Bower, T.C.
1855 - Lincolnton, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Briggs, Isaac
1852 - Salisbury, NC; (Daguerreotypes) A traveling photographer, who mainly worked in Maryland.

Broadaway, John S. (Daguerreotypes, fereotypes/tintypes and ambrotypes )
White, Colcough & Co.'s store, Sumter, S.C., 1859 and possibly part of 1860. He was noted in partnership with John W. Davis. Broadaway was also noted in White Plain (S.C.?) in July, 1859, and Camden, S.C., in the same month.
1865-72 - Charlotte, bought out by Henry Baumgarten in 1872 with stipulation Broadaway couldn't open a studio in Charlotte for 10 years. Broadaway contested the contract but lost and relocated to Greenville, SC, as a photographer by 1880, before returning to the state in 1883.
1883-87 - Winston, NC

Broadbent, Samuel
Spring 1848 - Fayetteville & Raleigh, NC; (Daguerreotypes) A traveling photographer

Brush, S. B.
1854-55 - New Bern, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Bryan, J. L.
1846-48 - Wilmington & Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes) partnership in both cities with S. D. Humphrey. The firm was known as Humphrey and Company. In Fayetteville, the gallery was in Brick Row at Haymount Street; in Wilmington, the gallery was a room on Front Street.

Buis, William
1856-57 - Salisbury, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Burgess, Joseph I.
1857 - Elizabeth City, NC (Daguerreotypes)
1867-68 - Trenton

Burney, James
1847-48 - New Bern, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

1850 - Hillsborough, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Chadwick, E.H.
1860 - Kinston, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Clark, David Lowry
1858-60+, 1866-1902 - High Point, NC (30 N. Main in 1902)
He was an artist, portrait painter and photographer. Utilizing Woodward's Solar Camera, he promoted enlargements. In 1860, he was in a partnership as Clark and Price.

Clark, E.W.
1846 - Wilmington, NC; (Daguerreotypes)
1847 - Raleigh, NC; (Daguerrotypes) was in partnership with Hutchins.

Coburn, A.
1849 - Charlotte, NC; (Daguerreotypes) He was active in Danville, VA, and Camden, SC, in 1848, Charlotte in 1849 and Binghampton, NY in 1850-51.

1855 - Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in a partnership as Crowl and Cochran. The partner was L. Crowl.

Coffin, Z. S.
1855 - Salisbury, NC; (Daguerreotypes)
1857 - Greensborough, NC; advertised as Coffin's Gallery.

Copeland, Oliver Perry
1854-57 - Raleigh, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in 1854, he formed a partnership with (C. B.?) Havens, opening a gallery on Fayetteville Street in the William J. and A. S. Lougee building. He was a portrait painter and a photographer.
1859 - Oxford, NC; He returned to Virginia in 1861.

Cory, F. M.
1848-50 - Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in partnership as Cory and Newsom in 1849; apparently he was in business by himself in 1849-50.
1850 - Washington, NC, and Warrenton, NC;

Cory, Thomas D.
1852 - Salisbury, NC; (Daguerreotypes) also worked in York, SC, that same year.

Cowling, George W.
1860 - New Bern, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Cowling, Jesse L.
1856-60 - New Bern, NC; (Ambrotypes) He arrived from Virginia and opened his photography gallery on Craven Street over Jonathan Whaley's store.

Crowl, Levi
1855 - Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in partnership as Crowl and Cochran.
1858-61 - Wilmington (Front near Market during 1860-61)

Dr. Davis
May 1842 - Halifax, NC; itinerant daguerreotypist set up temporary gallery in William Pride's hotel; daguerreotypes were $6.00 each.

Dawson, William C.
1860 - Elizabeth City, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Donnell, R. L. & W. C.
1858-1859 - Greensborough, NC; (Daguerreotypes) "Donnell's Gallery"

Doratt, Charles
1844, 1846- - Raleigh, NC; (Daguerreotypes) He worked in Savannah during Feb. 1845 to sometime in early 1846. 
In the fall 1846, Doratt offered to take portraits of the North Carolina General Assembly members. He later shared space with portrait painter L.T. Voight at the Raleigh City Hall. Doratt was also credited with developing chemicals that helped the daguerreian process, and offered instruction in the art.
By 1851, he had relocated to Brooklyn, NY.

1855 - Kinston, NC; (Daguerreotypes) in partnership as Jeffers and Doty.

Dugan, R.
1843 - Fayetteville, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Duke, J.W.
1857 - Hillsborough, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Ellegood, Thomas C.
1851-52 - Salem, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

1856 - Hillsborough, NC; (Daguerreotypes) partnership of Ellis and Lipscombe

Ezzell, D. J.
1860 - Chapel Hill, NC; (Daguerreotypes)

Ferguson, M. M. 
1857 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Fink, Daniel M. 
1856-57 - Concord, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Forbis, H. R. 
1860 - Hillsborough, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Frear, W. H. 
1848-49 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)
may have relocated to Montgomery, AL, by 1854

French, William C. A. 
1860 - Greenborough, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Funk, D. M. 
1860 - Hendersonville, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Gorrell, H. C. 
1858 - Greensborough, NC (Daguerreotypes), as Gorrell's Gallery and as Scott & Gorrell partnership.

Griffin & Dr. G. H. Weeks
1851 - traveled in Virginia & North Carolina: Tarboro, Raleigh, Greensborough & Salisbury, NC. In Raleigh, the partners advertised as Locomotive Daguerrean Gallery. In Greensboro, the partners built a skylight gallery in William Gott's Hotel.

Gulick, J. W. 
1851-52 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Hammond, S. H.
1853 - New Bern, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Harrison, Benjamin F. 
1853 - New Bern, NC (B. F. Harrison & Company)
1854 - Wilmington, NC (apparently ran the gallery of Jesse H. Whitehurst for a brief period. One source cites Harrison as one of the best daguerreians in the state.
(William Harrison also reported at Whitehurst gallery at same period)

Havens, C. B. 
1851 - 1860+ - Raleigh, NC (Daguerreotypes); in 1854, he partnered with Oliver P. Copeland with a studio on Fayetteville St. in the William J. & A. S. Lougee building.

Havens, T. J. 
1852 -1860 - Chapel Hill and Raleigh, NC; owned and operated two studios during this period, apparently with Joshua P. Andrews as the photographer in Raleigh. Had a previous partnership with M. M. Mallon.

Herndon, Edward W. 
1859 - Asheville, NC (Daguerreotypes); he pruchased the gallery of Oscar M. Lewis.

Horton, B. B.
1859-61 - Wadesboro, NC (Daguerreotypes); listed as Horton's Gallery.

Hough, Eugenio K.
1859- - Louisburg, NC (1859); Hillsborough, NC (1859 - ), in partnership as Hough & Levois; Winston, NC (1870s) (Daguerreotypes)

Huggins, T.
1848 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Hughes, William P. (Daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, chrystallotypes & melainotypes)
1854 - Charlotte, NC
1855-56 - Salisbury, NC, & Asheville, NC (1855)
1857 - Charlotte, NC; in South Carolina during 1858 - 1860.
1867-69 - Greensboro, NC
1875-80 - Greensboro, NC (West Market opp. courthouse 1875-76) (N.S. Market, 1 W. Elm in 1879-80)

1846 - Wilmington, NC

Hunt, Esly
1850-59 - Chapel Hill, NC
1859 - Raleigh & Chapel Hill; he purchased T. J. Haven's Raleigh daguerian gallery in 1859.
1860 - Guilford County

1847 - Raleigh, NC (Daguerreotypes), partnership as Clark & Hutchins

Jeffers, George A. (or S.)
1855 - New Bern, NC, partnership with Jeffers & Doty
1856 - Charlotte, NC; later relocated to South Carolina.

Joyner, James
1843 - Hillsborough, NC (June - October 1843, Margaret St.) and New Bern, NC (Nov. 1843 - ; third floor of Devereax building)

Kennedy, M. E.
1853-54 - Goldsboro, NC (Daguerreotypes), at the Odd Fellows Hall in late October 1853.

Lancaster, J. M.
1857 - Charlotte, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Leinback, T. (also pelled Lewback)
1851 - Salem, NC (Daguerreotypes)

1859 - Louisburg, NC (Daguerreotypes), in partnership as Hough & Levois

Lewis, Oscar M.
1856-59 - Asheville, NC (Daguerreotypes); sold the business to E. W. Herndon

Lincolnton Daguerrean Gallery
1845 - Lincolnton, NC (Daguerreotypes), apparently the photographer was a Mr. Worth (perhaps B. G. Worth, see below, as the dates would fit) according to a contemporaneous newspaper comment.

Lindsey, Thomas W.
1860 - Greensboro(ugh), NC (Daguerreotypes)

1856 - Hillsborough, NC (Daguerreotypes), parnetship of Ellis and Lipscombe

Lounsbury, Charles S.
1853 - Washington, NC & Salisbury, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Mallon, M. M.
1854 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes) at J. H. Whitehurst's gallery
1857 - Raleigh, NC, & Beaufort, NC; partnership of Havens & Mallon
1857 - 1860 - Tarboro, NC; partnership of Havens & Mallon

Martin, S. B.
1853 - Salisbury, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Massalon, J.
1854 - Charlotte, NC (Daguerreotypes)

McClellan, S. H.
1860 - Monroe, NC 

McIntosh, R.
1851 - Salisbury, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Naramore, William W.
1850-51 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)

1848 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes) as partnership Cory & Newsom

Newton, L. H.
1857 - Hillsborough, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Nott, J. D.
1856-57 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes), took over from J. S. Wear

Osborn, J.
1859 - Oxford, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Palmer, John C.
1846 - 1850s - Raleigh, NC (Daguerreotypes) He also was a silversmith and jeweler, who took up photography in 1846.

Palmer, Williamby
1860 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Parrish, David
1853-60 - Warrenton, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Patterson, Alexander
1860 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Price, Calvin A.
1860 - High Point, NC (Daguerreotypes), as partnership Clark (D. L.) & Price
1861? - Goldsboro, studio on West Center Street
1866-67 - Goldsboro
1869 - Fayetteville

Ramseur, Malvina A. T. (amateur)
1858-59 - Lincolnton, NC (ambrotypes) (not in business)

Randolph, J. F.
1857 - Kinston, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Sampson, R. A.
1853 - Elizabeth City, NC (Daguerreotypes)
1854 - Tarboro, NC
1856 - Kinston, NC

1858 - Greensboro(ugh), NC (Daguerreotypes), as partnership of Scott & Gorrell (H.C.)

Separk, J. H.
1860 - Warrenton, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Shelburn, R. B.
1860 - Warrenton, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Shelburn, William
1860 - Oxford, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Shields, J. P.
1858 - Hillsborough, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Shore, Georgeby
1860 - Salem, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Simmons, R. P.
1860 - Ansonville, NC (Daguerreotypes)

1848 - Salisbury, NC (Daguerreotypes)
1849 - Charlotte, NC, and Lincolnton, NC (August-September 1849)

Smiley, T. C.
1851 - Asheville, NC (Daguerreotypes), had daguerreotypes on display at Eagle Hotel. may be same as Smiley listed above.

Smiley, T. H. (same as above?)
1842 (Dec.) - Raleigh, NC (Daguerreotypes), he opened a gallery here and remained in the city until March 1843. By 1857, he may be the photographer of the same name located in Knoxville, TN.

1850 - Warren County, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Smith, A. C.
1851 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes), same as above listing?

Smith, T. O.
1852 - Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Starrett, Alexander
1848-57 - Greensboro, NC (Daguerreotypes), an itinerant photographer, he advertised his rooms at William Gott's hotel (Aug. 19 - 26, 1848), and later ads refer to a building opposite the Bland House

Stringfellow, Henry B., Jr.
1843 - Raleigh, NC, and Fayetteville, NC (Daguerreotypes), was in Raleigh, traveled to the Planter's Hotel in Fayetteville, and returned in November to Raleigh, opening a new gallery over Benjamin Smith's store.

Sugg, J. C.
1857 - Salisbury, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Tanner, N. S.
1852-53 - Hillsborough, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Utley, Gabriel
1856 - Salisbury, NC, and Concord, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Van Orsdell, Clinton Murrett
1859-60 - Fayetteville, NC
(Daguerreotypes),  gallery on Hay Street. He came from Virginia.
1866-86 - Wilmington (41 1/2 Market St. 1866-67; 115 Market, in 1867; 38 Market between 1869-1871; 38 Market between 1875-late 1880s)

Vannerson, Lucian
1851 - Tarborough, NC (Daguerreotypes), worked for J. H. Whitehurst, generally lived in Richmond and Baltimore.

Watson, John W.
Began as a traveling daguerreian in Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia.
1855-56 - Hillsborough, Tarboro, Newbern and Beaufort, NC (Daguerreotypes)
1857-59 - Newbern, NC
1862-88 - Raleigh, NC (apparently all on Fayetteville St.); 19 Fayetteville 1875-78; 131 or 131 1/2 Fayetteville St. 1883 - 1888

Wear, J. S.
Itinerant daguerreian in North and South Carolina and Virginia.
1846 - Wilmington, NC (Daguerreotypes)
1853-56 - Fayetteville, NC 
1855 & 1857 - Salem, NC (temporary gallery)
After Sept. 1857, he operated in South Carolina.

Weeks, G. H.
Itinerant daguerreian
1851 - Tarboro, Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, NC
Operated the "Locomotove Daguerrean Gallery" in Raleigh; built a skylight gallery in Greensboro at William Gott's Hotel; while in Greensboro, he claimed to have invented the "Ivory Daquerreotype."

Welfare, Alanson W.
1857 - Salem, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Jesse Harrison Whitehurst
Jan. 1853 - Jan. 1855 - Wilmington, NC; owned a daguerrotype gallery in the city; owned multiple galleries in different states, often hiring local photographers to run. In Wilmington, he hired Benjamin F. Harrison to operate the gallery, which was located in the Mozart Hall, above the Hart & Polley Store on Front Street. In 1854, he hired M. M. Mallon to run the gallery.
There also is a citation to a Weldon, NC, gallery in 1853 and 1855.

Wilde, Augusta & J. W. F.
Itinerant daguerreians. Augusta worked with her father, J. W. F. Wilde, between 1849 and 1854. She was advertised as a colorist of the daguerreotypes.
1851 - Greensboro, Hillsborough and Asheville, NC 
1852 - 1853 - Charlotte, NC (Daguerreotypes); while in town called their establishment the Charlotte Daugerrean Gallery (No. 5 Granite Row, over Trotter's Jewelry Store).

Wilkinson, Neil
1855-60 - Charlotte, NC (Daguerreotypes)

Wiseman, W. H. 
1857 - Salisbury, NC
1866-67 - Charlotte

Worth, B. G.
1844-45 - Raleigh, NC (Daguerreotypes) 
[See the Lincolnton Daguerrean Gallery, 1845] 
1846 - Hillsborough, NC

Zealey, Joseph T. 
1850 - NC (Daguerreotypes); primarily a South Carolina photographer located in Columbia, SC, between 1846 and 1865, but apparently traveled to North Carolina in 1850 to take photos.
Early types of photography (in order of invention) were:
   The daguerreotype is the only photographic process that used a thin coating of highly polished silver on a copper support. The silver was sensitized by exposure to fumes of iodine. After the camera exposed the plate, it was developed by exposing the plate to fumes of heated mercury. 
   The surface of the daguerreotype was very fragile and that is the reason why glass was used on top of the plate. The typical construction of the daguerreotype was to use a highly buffed copper plate that had been coated with silver. After processing, this plate had a decorative mat placed over the surface of the plate. The mat was usually made of brass and was used as a spacer as well as for decorative purposes. Mats came in several shapes and designs. A piece of glass was placed on top of the plate and mat. 
   Developed during the 1830s, the detailed process was publicly revealed in August 1839 and spread to America by the Fall. Daguerreotypes became less popular after the 1860s, and were replaced by less expensive formats.

   An ambrotype is made by coating a wet, light sensitive emulsion on a glass plate in the darkroom. The plate is then inserted into a light tight plate holder and then the plate holder is inserted into the prearranged camera. The dark slide is removed and the exposure is made by removing the lens cap thus exposing the plate. The dark slide is replaced and the holder is then removed from the camera and taken back into the darkroom and in the dark, while the plate is still wet, it is developed and fixed and washed with water and placed to air dry. After the plate is dry the back is coated with a black backing and placed under a brass mat with a clear glass cover. The whole package is then wrapped with a brass preserver and placed in a case or frame. The ambrotype process was devised in 1851/1852 by Frederick Scott Archer and Peter W. Fry and were mainly used for portraiture as an inexpensive substitute for the daguerreotype.
   Ambrotypes were patented in 1854. It remained popular up to the 1860s, with some use up to the late 1880s.

   A tintype is a photograph made on a sheet of iron instead of a piece of paper. 
   In 1856, Hamilton Smith patented the process for producing tintypes. Most tintypes were brownish in color and the most common size was about 2 " x 3 ". 
   Tintypes were popular from1856 until the early 1900's. 
   Tintypes were also called ferrotypes and melainotypes. Many tintypes were put in cases making it more difficult to differentiate them from a daguerreotype. Many tintypes were placed in a paper or cardboard frame while others were used in jewelry or in photo albums. 


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